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A centrifugal pump consists of a rotating device called an impeller, mounted on a shaft, inside of a round casing. Like the movement of water in a washing machine, the quick-rotating impeller disperses fluid from the center outward in spiraling channels to the walls of the casing. As the fluid is thrown outward, it gains speed and moves in a circular pattern around the edge of the casing and out again on the other end to the discharge pipe. This movement of oil away from the middle also generates a low-pressure spot in the center or eye of the impeller which pulls in more fluid, starting the process again. This ongoing process can maintain a high and constant flow rate and is typically used to transport thin or low viscosity fluids. They are often used in a larger network of other centrifugal pumps for transporting crude oil or as a water jet pump used in secondary oil and gas recovery.
A gear pump is a very simple type of rotary pump which can come in two forms: external and internal. In an external gear pump, one gear rotates and pushes a free-moving gear along in the opposite direction. As the gear teeth separate on the suction side of the pump, the creation of an empty space generates a slight vacuum which pulls in more fluid. The rest of the fluid is then carried around and squeezed out through the discharge nozzle. Internal gear pumps work similarly but have one gear with teeth on the outside moving within a gear that only has teeth in its hollow inside. Since the fluid to be pumped must pass through very tight spaces, gear pumps are often used for clean fluids, such as oil which has already undergone filtration.
These pumps usually consist of two or more threaded screws turning in a fixed casing. Like what you might see in a meat grinder, the screws in the pump turn against each other and trap fluid between their threading, smoothing it out as it goes. In comparison with gear pumps, screw pumps are typically more powerful and generate less noise and vibration.
Vane pumps consist of a rotor with several vanes jutting out of it from a position off center within a circular casing. As the rotor turns, the vanes lengthen or shorten to match the distance between the off-center rotor and inner wall of the casing. In the space between the vanes, they create a cavity for fluid to flow into at the intake opening. As this fluid moves along, trapped between two vanes, the space shrinks, adding enough pressure so that when the fluid reaches the outtake opening, it will be sucked out into the lower pressure pipe.
Resembling the internal combustion engine of a car, piston pumps use a piston at both the inlet and outlet of a pump to suck fluid in and force it out. To create a smooth flow rate, these pumps are designed in double-acting configuration so the fluid has two channels to move through while a single piston manages them both. This means that as one side of the piston moves inward in one channel, sucking up fluid into an open space, the other side of it pushes fluid out, forcing it into the discharge pipe. These two sides of the piston work in conjunction to create an uninterrupted flow with less pulsation.
Using a combination of a piston and a diaphragm, diaphragm pumps share the same working principle as piston pumps. They have a rod and plunger which pushes against a diaphragm to compress the fluid by means of a crankshaft. Diaphragm pumps are very precise and only used for small amounts of liquid in which an exact discharge flow is expected. They are well suited for high-volume fluid transfer in refineries but are not suitable for continuous oil pumping or transporting fluid a long distance.
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